September 2023

Early Childhood Poverty Tracker: Spotlight on 3K for All and Mother's Labor Force Participation

Access to free early childhood education positively impacts mothers’ labor force participation and employment.

Contributors: Eunho Cha, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Jill Gandhi, Yajun Jia, Matthew Maury, Kathryn Neckerman, and Jane Waldfogel

Issues Areas: Education, Households With Children

Early Childhood Poverty Tracker data finds that “3-K for All” availability supported mothers’ labor force participation. After children became age-eligible for “3-K for All”, mothers who lived in districts with higher 3-K availability were more likely to be in the labor force than those who lived in districts with lower 3-K availability. Mothers with greater 3-K availability also had higher rates of full-time employment. And even after the 3-K year, mothers with more access to 3-K had higher rates of labor force participation and full-time employment.